Preliminary outcomes from the PULSE randomised controlled trial - a multi-component type 2 diabetes prevention program for men (#68)
Aim: To determine the efficacy of the PULSE program (Prevention Using LifeStyle Education) – a multi-component intervention for type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention tailored for men. Study design: A 3-month randomized controlled trial (wait-list control group). Eligibility required men to be at high risk based on the Australian Diabetes Risk (AUSDRISK) screening tool. After baseline assessments (anthropometrics, fitness tests and blood tests), men were randomized (stratified by BMI and age) to either the intervention (n = 53) or wait-list control (n = 48) group. Follow up measures were conducted at 3 months. Intervention: Participants were provided with a T2D resource manual, which focused on providing information and tips on the appropriate diet and exercise for improving T2D risk profile. This was complimented by the SHED-IT weight loss resources. Men were also provided with a home-based exercise program, which recommended 150 min aerobic exercise and 60 min resistance training (Gymstick and body weight exercises). Results: Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant (P < 0.05) group by time interactions for weight, BMI, waist circumference (narrowest), fat mass and skeletal muscle mass (Bioimpedance), predicted VO2max (Ebbeling treadmill protocol), and insulin, but not for fasting plasma glucose or HbA1C. Between groups differences (mean and 95% CI) favoured the intervention group for weight change (3.66 kg [2.41, 4.93; 95% CI], P < 0.001), BMI (1.05 kg.m-2 [0.62, 1.47; 95% CI], P < 0.001), waist circumference (4.98 cm [2.60, 7.35; 95% CI], P < 0.001), fat mass (2.99 kg [0.56, 5.41; 95% CI], P = 0.016), skeletal muscle mass (1.70 kg [0.35, 3.05; 95% CI], P = 0.014), predicted VO2max (2.37 ml.kg-1.min-1 [0.27, 4.47; 95% CI], P = 0.027) and insulin (2.77 mIU/L [0.49, 5.05; 95% CI], P = 0.018). Conclusion: A home-based multi-component lifestyle program can provide significant health improvements for men at risk of T2D.