Effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with water, coffee/tea, milk, and 100% fruit juice on changes in body fatness from childhood to adolescence (#62)
Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was thought to promote weight gain. Finding suitable alternatives for SSBs is crucial for obesity prevention in children and adolescents.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of beverage consumption and the effects of replacing SSBs with water, coffee/tea, milk, and 100% fruit juice on changes in body fatness over 6-y.
Design: A cohort of 9-year-old children (n=358) who participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for 6-y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between beverage consumption at baseline and changes in body fatness (body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), waist circumference (WC), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF)) over 6-y. A substitution model was used to evaluate the effects of substituting various beverages for SSBs, controlling for total beverage intake, energy from non-beverage sources, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and pubertal status.
Results: Consumption of SSBs at age 9 y, but not other beverages, was positively associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMI z-score and Σ4SF. Substitution of 100g of water for SSBs was negatively associated with changes in BMI z-score (P=0.04), WC (P=0.04) and Σ4SF (P=0.03) over 6-y. Substitution of 100g of milk for SSBs was also negatively associated with changes in BMI z-score (P=0.02), WC (P=0.05) and Σ4SF (P=0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSBs by 100% fruit juice.
Conclusions: Our results suggest SSBs consumption is associated with long term changes in body fatness from childhood to adolescence, and replacing SSBs with water or milk has beneficial effects on changes in body fatness.